The retina is a light-sensitive membrane located at the back of the eye. When light passes through the eye, the lens focuses an image on the retina. The retina converts the image to signals that it sends to the brain via the optic nerve. The retina works with the cornea, lens, and other parts of the eye and the brain to produce normal vision.
Retinal detachment occurs when the retina separates from the back of the eye. This causes loss of vision that can be partial or total, depending on how much of the retina is detached. Retinal detachment is a medical emergency. When your retina becomes detached, its cells may be deprived of oxygen. See your doctor immediately if you suspect you have retinal detachment.
If left untreated or if treatment of retinal detachment is delayed, you risk permanent vision loss.
There are three types of retinal detachment:
If you have a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, you have a tear or hole in your retina. This allows fluid from within the eye to slip through the opening and get behind the retina. The fluid separates the retina from the membrane that provides it with nourishment and oxygen. The pressure from the fluid can push the retina away from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), causing the retina to detach. This is the most common type of retinal detachment.
Tractional retinal detachment occurs when scar tissue on the retina’s surface contracts and causes the retina to pull away from the back of the eye. This is a less common type of detachment that typically affects people with diabetes. Diabetes can lead to issues with the retinal vascular system and cause scar tissue in the eye that could cause detachment.
In exudative detachment, there are no tears or breaks in the retina. This type of detachment is caused by retinal diseases such as inflammatory disorder or Coats disease, which causes abnormal development in the blood vessels behind the retina.
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text source: Healthline
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